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Consequence Relations

Author: Alex Citkin
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2022-06-30
Genre: Young Adult Nonfiction
ISBN: 019269149X
Rating: 4.6/5 (914 downloads)

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The publication of Rasiowa and Sikorski's The Mathematics of Metamathematics (1970), Rasiowa's An Algebraic Approach to Non-Classical Logics (1974), and Wójcicki's Theory of Logical Calculi (1988) created a niche in the field of mathematical and philosophical logic. This in-depth study of the concept of a consequence relation, culminating in the concept of a Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra, fills this niche. Citkin and Muravitsky consider the problem of obtaining confirmation that a statement is a consequence of a set of statements as prerequisites, on the one hand, and the problem of demonstrating that such confirmation does not exist in the structure under consideration, on the other hand. For the second part of this problem, the concept of the Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra plays a key role, which becomes even more important when the considered consequence relation is placed in the context of decidability. This role is traced in the book for various formal objective languages. The work also includes helpful exercises to aid the reader's assimilation of the book's material. Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and philosophy, this book can be used to teach special courses in logic with an emphasis on algebraic methods, for self-study, and also as a reference work.

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Unintended Consequence

Author: William Kane
Publsiher: Page Publishing, Inc
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2020-11-13
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1647019834
Rating: 4.0/5 (198 downloads)

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Being a citizen requires more than just being a resident. If you intend to vote in 2020 or beyond, then you should read this book before you vote. If you do not intend to vote, then you should read this book to understand why you should vote. Consider this a primer in contemporary civics. It is not meant to tell you what to think; instead, it is purposed to encourage you to think, to inspire you to question, challenge, validate, explore, and consider. It is intended to demonstrate how legislative policies have historically led to unintended consequences that then required additional legislation to resolve the unforeseen outcome. Our history is riddled with such instances. Most government programs are based upon noble principles on their onset—national security, to assist the economically disadvantaged, to provide a head start for those with inferior educational opportunity, or to provide a safety net for those who lack medical coverage. While some societal good and redressing of our national shortcomings have resulted from these efforts, the objectives of most remain unachieved. The cost has led to unsustainable national debt. Moderation and compromise are the proper pathways to governing our great nation. Our politics have become so party-polarized that moderation and compromise seem impossible. We must all share the same fundamental priority—nation over party. We will retrace our history to understand how we came to this place. Where does government responsibility end and personal responsibility begin? Let us examine these progressive laws, assess their success, and consider their cost to the US taxpayer. Diversity is an admirable thing, but in certain instances, uniformity is preferable. Charity is a blessed thing, but self-sufficiency is everlasting. Public assistance is a moral thing, but fiscal responsibility is an obligation. The decisions we make as a nation must transcend party politics and philosophies and refocus upon the larger, more compelling obligation of sustaining America, its history, its glory, and its future. Ronald Reagan cautioned that “we must act today in order to preserve tomorrow.” We must stand against the erosion of our democracy, economy, national security, and the basic moral fabric of our nation. The world is watching, and so are our grandchildren. Carpe diem.

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Creation and the Consequence of Satan's Fall

Author: Pieter Dykstra
Publsiher: WestBow Press
Total Pages: 70
Release: 2012-06
Genre: Religion
ISBN: 1449754392
Rating: 4.7/5 (543 downloads)

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The Gap Theory shows evidence of the dinosaurs becoming extinct as the result of Satan's fall and explores the origin of demons as being disembodied spirits of a pre-Adamic race, who were judged by God, as the result of Satan's sin. Why was man commissioned by God in Genesis 1:28 to "replenish" the earth? Why did God use that word? Could this be a reference to a pre-Adamic race that was created in Genesis 1:1 and destroyed in Genesis 1:2 due to Satan's fall, and which the human was to "replace" or "replenish"? Read where angels that sinned left their heavenly habitation and came down to earth to procreate with humans and whose children were called "Mighty men, which were of old, men of renown," offspring that are the source of all the ancient secular myths that claim the "gods" came down to earth and married human women.

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Logical Pluralism and Logical Consequence

Author: Erik Stei
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 229
Release: 2023-03-30
Genre: Philosophy
ISBN: 1108851878
Rating: 4.8/5 (518 downloads)

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Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one correct logic. This is not necessarily a controversial claim but in its most exciting formulations, pluralism extends to logics that have typically been considered rival accounts of logical consequence – to logics, that is, which adopt seemingly contradictory views about basic logical laws or arguments. The logical pluralist challenges the philosophical orthodoxy that an argument is either deductively valid or invalid by claiming that there is more than one way for an argument to be valid. In this book, Erik Stei defends logical monism, provides a detailed analysis of different possible formulations of logical pluralism, and offers an original account of the plurality of correct logics that incorporates the benefits of both pluralist and monist approaches to logical consequence. His book will be valuable for a range of readers in the philosophy of logic.

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On Pluralism and Consequence

Author: Ian O'Loughlin
Total Pages: 117
Release: 2008-08-22
Genre: Pluralism
ISBN: 1435752171
Rating: 4.7/5 (521 downloads)

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A reconciliation of pluralism and realism in the philosophy of logic, charging that the realist about consequence must also endorse pluralism to avoid untenably bold epistemological claims.

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Collaborations of Consequence

Author: The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 441
Release: 2019-01-07
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 0309483654
Rating: 4.4/5 (836 downloads)

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This publication represents the culmination of the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative (NAKFI), a program of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine supported by a 15-year, $40 million grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation to advance the future of science through interdisciplinary research. From 2003 to 2017, more than 2,000 researchers and other professionals across disciplines and sectors attended an annual "think-tank" style conference to contemplate real-world challenges. Seed grants awarded to conference participants enabled further pursuit of bold, new research and ideas generated at the conference.

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Claiming His Nine-Month Consequence

Author: Jennie Lucas
Publsiher: Harlequin
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2018-02-01
Genre: Fiction
ISBN: 148808310X
Rating: 4.0/5 (831 downloads)

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She succumbed to his sinful seduction… Now she’s carrying the Greek’s baby! It’s the last thing he wanted, but Greek billionaire Ares Kourakis is going to be a father. He’ll do his duty and keep pregnant Ruby by his side—he’ll even marry her. But when all he can offer is intense passion and a vast fortune, will that be enough to get idealistic Ruby down the aisle?

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The Assassins of Consequence

Author: Marshall Ryan Maresca
Publsiher: Astra Publishing House
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2022-03-29
Genre: Fiction
ISBN: 0756417627
Rating: 4.4/5 (176 downloads)

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The autumn semester at the University of Maradaine is underway, and Veranix Calbert is doing his best to balance the new responsibilities of being a fourth-year magic student under the militant Altarn Initiatives, while still acting as The Thorn, the street vigilante deep in a personal war against the drug kingpin Willem Fenmere. With the help of his friends Kaiana, Delmin, and Mila, he’s been able to strike real blows against Fenmere’s empire. But Veranix’s fight has earned him more enemies than just Fenmere, including the mad alchemist Cuse Jensett, the imposters Erno Don and Enzin Hence, and the Deadly Birds Magpie and Jackdaw. These five killers join forces to escape Quarrygate Prison and offer an alliance to Fenmere, bringing with them the perfect leverage to seal the deal: the Thorn’s identity. Once Fenmere knows who Veranix is, he doesn’t just want to kill him, but to utterly shatter him. Calling on everyone in Maradaine holding a grudge against the Thorn, he unleashes a brutal hunt against Veranix. With old and new enemies all looking to claim the bounty on his head, stripped of the security of his secret identity, Veranix faces the most brutal fight of his all too-short life.

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Fashion and Consequence

Author: Minister of many travels
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1855
Genre: Christian ethics
Rating: 4./5 ( downloads)

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Character and Consequence

Author: Robert A. Strong
Publsiher: Lexington Books
Total Pages: 173
Release: 2019-12-15
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1498589367
Rating: 4.5/5 (893 downloads)

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Character and Consequence by Robert A. Strong, looks at important foreign policy decisions of George H. W. Bush through the lens of character and asks how personal traits like loyalty, compassion, reticence and audacity had an impact on American foreign policy at a pivotal point in world history. Combining biographical observations with in-depth case studies of complicated international events, the book explores foreign policy decision-making and presidential personality for a broad audience. It is recommended to those curious about a critical era in U.S. diplomatic history, and to students of American politics and international relations who want to understand America’s forty-first president and his decisions and actions at the end of the Cold War.

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Curriculum & Consequence

Author: Herbert M. Kliebard
Publsiher: Teachers College Press
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2000
Genre: Education
ISBN: 9780807739501
Rating: 4.8/5 (77 downloads)

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In this landmark volume, former students and colleagues of Herbert Kliebard explore issues he pioneered, and extend the discussion to new intellectual terrain. Published to honoru Kliebard upon his retirement from the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, these essays address a number of key issues including the Dewey legacy, the conflict between democracy and social control, curriculum differentiation, and liberal education. Written by a distinguished group of curriculum theorists and educational historians, the essays offer researchers substantive treatment of an array of key curricular issues and provide a conceptually rich text for courses in curriculum and educational history.

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Catholics of Consequence

Author: Ciaran O'Neill
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2014-06-12
Genre: History
ISBN: 0191017469
Rating: 4.0/5 (174 downloads)

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For as far back as school registers can take us, the most prestigious education available to any Irish child was to be found outside Ireland. Catholics of Consequence traces, for the first time, the transnational education, careers, and lives of more than two thousand Irish boys and girls who attended Catholic schools in England, France, Belgium, and elsewhere in the second half of the nineteenth century. There was a long tradition of Irish Anglicans, Protestants, and Catholics sending their children abroad for the majority of their formative years. However, as the cultural nationalism of the Irish revival took root at the end of the nineteenth century, Irish Catholics who sent their children to school in Britain were accused of a pro-Britishness that crystallized into still recognisable terms of insult such as West Briton, Castle Catholic, Squireen, and Seoinin. This concept has an enduring resonance in Ireland, but very few publications have ever interrogated it. Catholics of Consequence endeavours to analyse the education and subsequent lives of the Irish children that received this type of transnational education. It also tells the story of elite education in Ireland, where schools such as Clongowes Wood College and Castleknock College were rooted in the continental Catholic tradition, but also looked to public schools in England as exemplars. Taken together the book tells the story of an Irish Catholic elite at once integrated and segregated within what was then the most powerful state in the world.

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Deflating Existential Consequence

Author: Jody Azzouni
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2004-01-08
Genre: Philosophy
ISBN: 9780198036241
Rating: 4.1/5 (98 downloads)

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If we must take mathematical statements to be true, must we also believe in the existence of abstracta eternal invisible mathematical objects accessible only by the power of pure thought? Jody Azzouni says no, and he claims that the way to escape such commitments is to accept (as an essential part of scientific doctrine) true statements which are about objects that don't exist in any sense at all. Azzouni illustrates what the metaphysical landscape looks like once we avoid a militant Realism which forces our commitment to anything that our theories quantify. Escaping metaphysical straitjackets (such as the correspondence theory of truth), while retaining the insight that some truths are about objects that do exist, Azzouni says that we can sort scientifically-given objects into two categories: ones which exist, and to which we forge instrumental access in order to learn their properties, and ones which do not, that is, which are made up in exactly the same sense that fictional objects are. He offers as a case study a small portion of Newtonian physics, and one result of his classification of its ontological commitments, is that it does not commit us to absolute space and time.