Download The Shield of Achilles PDF

The Shield of Achilles

Author: Philip Bobbitt
Publsiher: Anchor
Total Pages: 960
Release: 2011-07-06
Genre: History
ISBN: 0307796906
Rating: 4.7/5 (969 downloads)

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"We are at a moment in world affairs when the essential ideas that govern statecraft must change. For five centuries it has taken the resources of a state to destroy another state . . . This is no longer true, owing to advances in international telecommunications, rapid computation, and weapons of mass destruction. The change in statecraft that will accompany these developments will be as profound as any that the State has thus far undergone." —from the Prologue The Shield of Achilles is a classic inquiry into the nature of the State, its origin in war, and its drive for peace and legitimacy. Philip Bobbitt, a professor of constitutional law and a historian of nuclear strategy, has served in the White House, the Senate, the State Department, and the National Security Council in both Democratic and Republican administrations, and here he brings his formidable experience and analytical gifts to bear on our changing world. Many have observed that the nation-state is dying, yet others have noted that the power of the State has never been greater. Bobbitt reconciles this paradox and introduces the idea of the market-state, which is already replacing its predecessor. Along the way he treats such themes as the Long War (which began in 1914 and ended in 1990). He explains the relation of violence to legitimacy, and the role of key individuals in fates that are partially—but only partially—determined. This book anticipates the coalitional war against terrorism and lays out alternative futures for the world. Bobbitt shows how nations might avoid the great power confrontations that have a potential for limitless destruction, and he traces the origin and evolution of the State to such wars and the peace conferences that forged their outcomes into law, from Augsburg to Westphalia to Utrecht to Vienna to Versailles. The author paints a powerful portrait of the ever-changing interrelatedness of our world, and he uses his expertise in law and strategy to discern the paths that statehood will follow in the coming years and decades. Timely and perceptive, The Shield of Achilles will change the way we think about the world.

Download The Politics of Systematization in EU Product Safety Regulation: Market, State, Collectivity, and Integration PDF

The Politics of Systematization in EU Product Safety Regulation: Market, State, Collectivity, and Integration

Author: Kai Purnhagen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 257
Release: 2013-06-26
Genre: Law
ISBN: 9400765436
Rating: 4.7/5 (654 downloads)

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This book examines the increasing role of the legal method of systematisation in European Union (EU) law. It argues that the legal method of systematisation that has been developed in a welfare-state context is increasingly used as a regulative tool to functionally integrate the market. The book uses the example of EU product regulation as a reference to illustrate the impact of systematisation on EU law. It draws conclusions from this phenomenon and redefines the current place and origin of systematisation in the EU legal system. It puts forward and demonstrates two main arguments. First, in certain sectors such as in EU product safety law, the quality of EU law changes from a sector-specific and reactive field of law to an increasingly coherent legal system at European level. Therefore, instead of punctual market intervention, it increasingly governs whole market areas. By doing so, it challenges and often fully replaces the respective welfare-based legal systems in the Member States for the benefit of the ideal of a market-driven EU legal system. Second, at European level, the ideal is in development. This illustrates the change of the function of Statecraft from nation-states to market-states.​

Download The Crisis of the German Left PDF

The Crisis of the German Left

Author: Peter Thompson
Publsiher: Berghahn Books
Total Pages: 154
Release: 2005
Genre: History
ISBN: 9781571815439
Rating: 4.5/5 (718 downloads)

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Using Nietzsche's categories of monumentalist, antiquarian and critical history, the author examines the historical and theoretical contexts of the collapse of the GDR in 1989 and looks at the positive and negative legacies of the GDR for the PDS (the successor party to the East German Communists). He contends that the Stalinization of the GDR itself was the product not just of the Cold War but of a longer inter-systemic struggle between the competing primacies of politics and economics and that the end of the GDR has to be seen as a consequence of the global collapse of the social imperative under the pressure of the re-emergence of the market-state since the mid-1970s. The PDS is therefore stuck in dilemma in which any attempt to "arrive in the Federal Republic" (Brie) is criticized as a readiness to accept the dominance of the market over society whereas any attempt to prioritize social imperatives over the market is attacked as a form of unreconstructed Stalinism. The book offers some suggestions as to how to escape from this dilemma by returning to the critical rather than monumentalist and antiquarian traditions of the workers' movement.

Download The Crime of Aggression PDF

The Crime of Aggression

Author: Noah Weisbord
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2019-06-11
Genre: Law
ISBN: 069116987X
Rating: 4.1/5 (698 downloads)

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A gripping behind-the-scenes account of the dramatic legal fight to hold leaders personally responsible for aggressive war On July 17, 2018, starting an unjust war became a prosecutable international crime alongside genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. Instead of collective state responsibility, our leaders are now personally subject to indictment for crimes of aggression, from invasions and preemptions to drone strikes and cyberattacks. The Crime of Aggression is Noah Weisbord’s riveting insider’s account of the high-stakes legal fight to enact this historic legislation and hold politicians accountable for the wars they start. Weisbord, a key drafter of the law for the International Criminal Court, takes readers behind the scenes of one of the most consequential legal dramas in modern international diplomacy. Drawing on in-depth interviews and his own invaluable insights, he sheds critical light on the motivations of the prosecutors, diplomats, and military strategists who championed the fledgling prohibition on unjust war—and those who tried to sink it. He untangles the complex history behind the measure, tracing how the crime of aggression was born at the Nuremberg trials only to fall dormant during the Cold War, and he draws lessons from such pivotal events as the collapse of the League of Nations, the rise of the United Nations, September 11, and the war on terror. The power to try leaders for unjust war holds untold promise for the international order, but also great risk. In this incisive and vitally important book, Weisbord explains how judges in such cases can balance the imperatives of justice and peace, and how the fair prosecution of aggression can humanize modern statecraft.

Download International Criminal Justice PDF

International Criminal Justice

Author: Gideon Boas
Publsiher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2012-01-01
Genre: Law
ISBN: 1781005605
Rating: 4.0/5 (56 downloads)

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ÔInternational criminal justice indeed is a crowded field. But this edited collection stands well above the crowd. And it does so with dignity. Through interdisciplinary analysis, the editors skillfully turn shibboleths into intrigues. Theirs is a kaleidoscopic project that scales a gamut of issues: from courtroom discipline, to gender, to the defense, to history. Through vivid deployment of unconventional methods, this edited collection unsettles conventional wisdom. It thereby pushes law and policy toward heartier horizons.Õ Ð Mark A. Drumbl, Washington and Lee University, School of Law, US International criminal justice as a discipline throws up numerous conceptual issues, engaging disciplines such as law, politics, history, sociology and psychology, to name but a few. This book addresses themes around international criminal justice from a mixture of traditional and more radical perspectives. While law, and in particular international law, is at the heart of much of the discussion around this topic, history, sociology and politics are invariably infused and, in some aspects of international criminal justice, are predominant elements. Fundamentally the exploration concerns questions of coherence and legitimacy, which are foundational to both the content and application of the discipline, and the book charts an illuminating path through these diverse perspectives. The contributions in this book come from some of the eminent scholars and practitioners in the area, and will provide some profound insight into and an enriched understanding of international criminal justice, helping to advance the field of study. This ambitious and necessary book will appeal to academics and students of international criminal law, international criminal justice, international law, transitional justice and comparative criminal law, as well as practitioners of international criminal law.

Download Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict PDF

Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict

Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 9551
Release: 2008-09-05
Genre: Social Science
ISBN: 9780123739858
Rating: 4.1/5 (237 downloads)

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The 2nd edition of Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict provides timely and useful information about antagonism and reconciliation in all contexts of public and personal life. Building on the highly-regarded 1st edition (1999), and publishing at a time of seemingly inexorably increasing conflict and violent behaviour the world over, the Encyclopedia is an essential reference for students and scholars working in the field of peace and conflict resolution studies, and for those seeking to explore alternatives to violence and share visions and strategies for social justice and social change. Covering topics as diverse as Arms Control, Peace Movements, Child Abuse, Folklore, Terrorism and Political Assassinations, the Encyclopedia comprehensively addresses an extensive information area in 225 multi-disciplinary, cross-referenced and authoritatively authored articles. In his Preface to the 1st edition, Editor-in-Chief Lester Kurtz wrote: "The problem of violence poses such a monumental challenge at the end of the 20th century that it is surprising we have addressed it so inadequately. We have not made much progress in learning how to cooperate with one another more effectively or how to conduct our conflicts more peacefully. Instead, we have increased the lethality of our combat through revolutions in weapons technology and military training. The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict is designed to help us to take stock of our knowledge concerning these crucial phenomena." Ten years on, the need for an authoritative and cross-disciplinary approach to the great issues of violence and peace seems greater than ever. More than 200 authoritative multidisciplinary articles in a 3-volume set Many brand-new articles alongside revised and updated content from the First Edition Article outline and glossary of key terms at the beginning of each article Entries arranged alphabetically for easy access Articles written by more than 200 eminent contributors from around the world

Download The Direction of War PDF

The Direction of War

Author: Hew Strachan
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 337
Release: 2013-12-05
Genre: History
ISBN: 1107047854
Rating: 4.0/5 (478 downloads)

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A major contribution to our understanding of contemporary warfare and strategy by one of the world's leading military historians.

Download Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II PDF

Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II

Author: James Ciment
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 1488
Release: 2015-03-27
Genre: Business & Economics
ISBN: 1317471865
Rating: 4.4/5 (718 downloads)

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Thoroughly revised to include 25 conflicts not covered in the previous edition, as well as expanded and updated information on previous coverage, this illustrated reference presents descriptions and analyses of more than 170 significant post-World War II conflicts around the globe. Organized by region for ease of access, "Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II, Second Edition" provides clear, in-depth explanations of events not covered in such detail in any other reference source. Including more than 180 detailed maps and 150 photos, the set highlights the conflicts that dominate today's headlines and the events that changed the course of late twentieth-century history.

Download The Final Act PDF

The Final Act

Author: Michael Cotey Morgan
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2020-08-11
Genre: History
ISBN: 0691210462
Rating: 4.2/5 (14 downloads)

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The definitive account of the historic diplomatic agreement that provided a blueprint for ending the Cold War The Helsinki Final Act was a watershed of the Cold War. Signed by thirty-five European and North American leaders at a summit in Finland in the summer of 1975, the document presented a vision for peace based on common principles and cooperation across the Iron Curtain. The Final Act is the first in-depth history of the diplomatic saga that produced this important agreement. This gripping book explains the Final Act's emergence from the parallel crises of the Soviet bloc and the West during the 1960s and the conflicting strategies that animated the negotiations. Drawing on research in eight countries and multiple languages, The Final Act shows how Helsinki provided a blueprint for ending the Cold War and building a new international order.

Download The Paradox of Power PDF

The Paradox of Power

Author: Ballard C. Campbell
Publsiher: University Press of Kansas
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2021-11-22
Genre: History
ISBN: 0700632565
Rating: 4.6/5 (325 downloads)

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America’s political history is a fascinating paradox. The United States was born with the admonition that government posed a threat to liberty. This apprehension became the foundation of the nation’s civic ideology and was embedded in its constitutional structure. Yet the history of public life in the United States records the emergence of an enormously powerful national state during the nineteenth century. By 1920, the United States was arguably the most powerful country in the world. In The Paradox of Power Ballard C. Campbell traces this evolution and offers an explanation for how it occurred. Campbell argues that the state in America is rooted in the country’s colonial experience and analyzes the evidence for this by reviewing governance at all levels of the American polity—local, state, and national—between 1754 and 1920. Campbell poses five critical causal references: war, geography, economic development, culture and identity (including citizenship and nationalism), and political capacity. This last factor embraces law and constitutionalism, administration, and political parties. The Paradox of Power makes a major contribution to our understanding of American statebuilding by emphasizing the fundamental role of local and state governance to successfully integrate urban, state, and national governments to create a composite and comprehensive portrait of how governance evolved in America.

Download War, Armed Force, and the People PDF

War, Armed Force, and the People

Author: Walter C. Opello Jr.
Publsiher: Rowman & Littlefield
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2016-10-18
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1442268816
Rating: 4.2/5 (688 downloads)

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Throughout history, innovations in military technology have transformed warfare, which, in turn, affected state formation. This interplay between warfare, military technology, and state formation is the focus of this text. Theoretically grounded in the bellicist approach to the study of war and state, which posits that war is a normal part of human experience, the book argues that the threat of war by powerful, predatory neighbors has been, until relatively recently, the prime mover of state formation. Using a historical approach, it explains how advances in military technology have transformed war, and how new modes of war in turn have transformed forms of politico-military rule, especially with regard to the relationship between the state, armed force, and the people.

Download Orders of Exclusion PDF

Orders of Exclusion

Author: Kyle M. Lascurettes
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2020
Genre: History
ISBN: 019006854X
Rating: 4.0/5 (685 downloads)

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"When and why do powerful countries seek to enact major changes to international order, the broad set of rules that condition behavior in world politics? This question is particularly important today, as Donald Trump's apparent disregard for the liberal international order and uncertainty over what China might seek to replace it with mean that queries about great power motives vis-à-vis order will remain at the forefront of debates over the future of world politics. In seeking to explain this phenomenon, prior studies have focused on the consensus- driven and inclusive origins of international orders. By contrast, I argue in this book that the propelling motivation for great power order building at important historical junctures has most often been exclusionary, centered around combatting other actors rather than cooperatively engaging with them. My core contention is that dominant actors pursue fundamental changes to order only when they perceive a major new threat on the horizon, a threat to their security or to their enduring primacy. When these actors seek to enact fundamentally new order principles, they do so for the purpose of targeting this perceived threat, be it another powerful state, a contrary alliance or a foreboding ideological movement. The goal of order building, then, is weakening, opposing and above all excluding that threatening entity from amassing further influence in world politics. Far from falling outside the bounds of traditional statecraft, order building is, to paraphrase Clausewitz, the continuation of power politics by other means"--

Download Rethinking the Liberal Peace PDF

Rethinking the Liberal Peace

Author: Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 274
Release: 2011-03-08
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1136740465
Rating: 4.7/5 (44 downloads)

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This book presents a critical analysis of the liberal peace project and offers possible alternatives and models. In the past decade, the model used for reconstructing societies after conflicts has been based on liberal assumptions about the pacifiying effects of 'open markets' and 'open societies'. Yet, despite the vast resources invested in helping establish the precepts of this liberal peace, outcomes have left much to be desired. The book argues that failures in the liberal peace project are not only due to efficiency problems related to its adaptation in adverse local environments, but mostly due to problems of legitimacy of turning an ideal into a doctrine for action. The aim of the book is to scrutinize assumptions about the value of democratization and marketization and realities on the ground by combining theoretical discussions with empirical evidence from key post-conflict settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan. These show the disparities that exist between the ideals and the reality of the liberal peace project, as seen by external peacebuilders and domestic actors. The book then proposes various alternatives and modifications to better accommodate local perspectives, values and agency in attempts to forge a new consensus. This book will be of great interest to students of peacebuilding/peacekeeping, statebuilding, war and conflict studies, international security and IR.

Download War in International Society PDF

War in International Society

Author: Lacy Pejcinovic
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2013-04-12
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 1135629005
Rating: 4.6/5 (29 downloads)

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Is war an institution of international society and how is it constituted as such across the evolution of international society? This book is an inquiry into the purpose of war as a social institution, as originally put forward by Hedley Bull. It offers a comprehensive examination of what is entailed in thinking of war as a social institution and as a mechanism for order. Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11 the subject of war has become increasingly relevant, with questions about who can wage war against whom, the way war is fought, and the reasons that lead us to war exposing fundamental inadequacies in our theorisation of war. War has long been considered in the discipline of International Relations in the context of the problem of order. However, the inclusion of war as an ‘institution’ is problematic for many. How can we understand an idea and practice so often associated with coercion, destruction, and disorder as contributing to order and coexistence? This study contends that an understanding of the core elements that establish the character of war as an institution of modern international society will give us important insights into the purpose, if any, of war in contemporary international relations. This ground-breaking book will be of strong interest to students and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, the English school, security studies and warfare.

Download The Recognition of States PDF

The Recognition of States

Author: Daniel Högger
Publsiher: LIT Verlag Münster
Total Pages: 255
Release: 2015
Genre: Recognition (International law).
ISBN: 3643801963
Rating: 4.8/5 (19 downloads)

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This book investigates the historical evolution of State recognition. It offers an overview of the contemporary concept, illustrates the central complexities, and, by applying an interdisciplinary perspective, provides an in-depth examination of its development in doctrine and practice in the respective historical context, while focusing particularly on the recognition requirements. (Series: International Law and International Relations / Volkerrecht und internationale Beziehungen - Vol. 11) [Subject: History]

Download Peace Infrastructures and State-Building at the Margins PDF

Peace Infrastructures and State-Building at the Margins

Author: Balázs Áron Kovács
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 303
Release: 2018-07-20
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 3319895664
Rating: 4.8/5 (956 downloads)

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This book offers a critical examination of ‘infrastructures for peace’, originally proposed as a framework of conflict transformation. Through an exploration of the statist ideological underpinnings of peace-building, it traces how the concept was transformed by institutional actors – international organisations and states – into a tool to further the state-building goals of liberal peace-building.

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The West at War

Author: Bradley C. S. Watson
Publsiher: Lexington Books
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2006-08-17
Genre: Political Science
ISBN: 073916242X
Rating: 4.1/5 (624 downloads)

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In The West at War, Bradley C. S. Watson brings together renowned scholars and public policy experts to reflect on perhaps the most pressing problem of our time—the West's increasingly bloody conflict with forces that seek nothing less than its destruction. In eleven provocative chapters, contributors deal with the internal challenges and external conflicts facing Western civilization in the context of the 'war on terror.'